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After treatment, the stabilized crude oil is normally transported through pipelines by means of dedicated Pumping Stations, allowing the crude oil to be transferred up to a Ship Loading Terminal or directly to the end user’s refinery.
Pumping Stations are normally realized by means of trains of centrifugal pumps (with flowrates up to several thousand of cubic meters per hour and with delivery pressures up to a hundred bar), pumps that are normally driven by means of gas turbines. Evaluation of transient pressure profiles and liquid hammer scenarios are critical points for Pumping Station design, requiring the installation of suitable protection devices such as the quick acting surge relief valve or HIPPS systems. Protection against vacuum is also to be considered in some cases.
If the Pumping Stations are standalone units, they must be equipped with all the required utilities such as fuel gas, electric power generation, instrument air, etc.